All food is made up of nutritional principles (NP), which are glicídeos (sugars), protídeos (proteins), lipids (fats), vitamins, minerals and water.
Each has specific function in your PN body, namely:
Energy Function: appears in the form of heat, which is the result of muscle work, the expenditure of energy and mechanics of cellular activity; is provided by glicídeos, protídeos and lipids.
Plastic: Function is responsible for the formation of tissues, being promoted by the proteins, minerals, vitamins and water.
Regulatory function: is responsible for the regulation of the organic functions, being promoted by water, minerals and vitamins.
Laws of power:
Four laws of power:
1-law of quantity
2-law of quality
3-law of harmony
4-law of fitness
Law of quantity: the food should be eaten in sufficient quantity to meet the calorie requirements and the maintenance of the balance of the balance sheet. “Sufficiency” and “balance” balance the maintenance of normal weight of the individual, even though the organism exposed to varying situations and environmental modifications. For example, in the summer needs more water and less energy for heating the body, the opposite occurring in the winter. A negative balance leads to dehydration and weight loss, a positive to indigestion and obesity.
Law of quality: the diet should be complete in your composition, in order to offer to the body, which is an indivisible unity, all substances that are part of. The PN are the formation of the human body in various combinations, such as, for example, cells, tissues, organs, systems, etc., all with very specific functions. Food should be selected on the basis of what the body needs, avoiding that this reaches the point of grace in particular nutrient (e.g. obese person with lack of iron).
Law of harmony: the diet should be about respecting the proportional relationship to the NP must keep each other.
Law of fitness: the purpose of food is subject to the suitability for your body. To do this, you must take into account the individual’s biological (growth phase, work, pregnancy, sports, etc.) and their pathological conditions, the latter requiring modifications in diet (dietoterápicos schemes).
Nutritional guidelines applied to mountaineering
There is a standard diet to the climber, but a proper diet to each situation, condition or time of physical activity. We can, however, relate some nutritional guidelines that should be observed by him:
1- Eat slowly because the fact of eating too quickly implies poor chewing, in the use of food, besides the production of gases, which elevate the diaphragm and impair aeration and sports performance. The extension of the period of digestion is also another consequence.
2- Search do not ingest too much liquid during meals, as it dilutes the food, making your absorption.Frozen liquids are vasoconstrictors, and therefore counterproductive to the digestive period.
3- Suppress the use of alcohol and make moderate use of exciting drinks (coffee, tea, maté and Guarana)
4- Avoid the extreme types of idolatry only just cárne feeding food vegetarian, just trees, etc.) and adopt a variety of foods and well balanced.
5 – in addition to the basic foods, are still recommended: honey, beer yeast, wheat germ, whole wheat, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, brown sugar and molasses.
6- Other foods can disrupt the smooth performance of the climber, as, for example, alcohol, excess bread (kernels), carbonated, preserves, pork, seasonings, vegetables with excess fibers and food from the sea, the last easily perishable.
7- Among the recommended, we can comment:
Honey: in your basic composition found, among other things, levulose, glucose, various compositions of iron, copper, manganese, propolis, Royal Jelly, pollen and wax. How does not require the action of insulin to be metabolized, is quickly transformed into glycogen (a preponderant factor of energy). There is on the market in small sachets for individual use, which is ideal for hiking.
Brewer’s yeast-rich in B-complex, assists in reclaiming the own vitamin D, but it is not recommended for use during exercise or even the day before, because it favors the intestinal fermentations.
Wheat germ-food of high biological value, containing several and important minerals and vitamins, especially vitamin E, very important for the metabolism.
Guarana-caffeine, which is exciting.
Brown sugar – is Rico in iron, but less energetic than the Brazil nuts.
Coconut water – has fewer calories, being very rich in vitamins and minerals.
Dried fruit-raisins, Plum, fig, apricot, pear.
Oleaginous fruits-nuts, hazelnuts, coconut.
Granola – is a mixture of several of these recommended foods.
Nutritional care of the Mountaineer
Special conditions, such as weather, temperature, environment, time and duration of the activity, determine certain requirements for the practice of mountaineering. We will comment some situations commonly encountered in this sport, such as heat, thirst, cold and duration of the tour.
Heat – produces great loss of water and minerals. The imbalance and the malaise from the heat can be controlled by eating a larger amount of sodium chloride and potassium gliconato, as, for example, through the protein and salads and/or fruit
Headquarters – great efforts come with very thirsty. Before drinking, you should relax and, only when your breath if you regulate, will SIP the liquid slowly and in small amounts. If, in a muscle work as hiking, is ingested too much fluid, perspiration will be increased too much and the loss of salts, the sweat will be great. This loss will lead to fatigue, pallor, dispinéia and tachycardia. The preferable is ingesting little liquid at room temperature, and supplement with citrus fruits, tomatoes, carrot or cucumber with a little salt.
Cold -as the cold causes defense reactions in the body, you should increase the amount of fat and vitamin C, because they favor such mechanisms. For this, it is recommended to ingest yellow cheeses, chocolate and raw or dried fruits, before and/or during the activities.
Duration of the tour – as some foods facilitate the occurrence of bowel problems in certain individuals, it is recommended that these people have the foresight to delete them from your custom power supply, with at least two days in advance. Such recommendation applies especially to long distances or large efforts. Are examples of this type of food: whole milk, prunes, raw fats and leaves.
In mountaineering in altitudes below 3000 metres, the well-trained climber features qualities of well-developed clearing and organic adaptation, not requiring a special diet. On the other hand, higher altitudes modify the basal metabolism and blood viscosity which, combined with the least amount of oxygen in the air, require an adequate ration. For example, we can say that the sugars are easily assimilated, because they require little oxygen and too much water, the opposite with the proteins, that require a lot of oxygen to your metabolism.
One of the problems that the Mountaineer always find is the weight of the backpack. In the same way that the equipment should be as light and compact as possible, the same occurs with the power supply. Are recommended foods such as chocolate bars, soups, dehydrated, powdered milk and infant foods water soluble. In storing the food, it is important to discard the original packaging that, apart from the unnecessary weight, may exhibit excessive content.
Finally the question: which menu suggest? It’s a matter of hard to answer, because the taste is a very personal feature. In General, one can propose lightly spiced ricotta folder with raisins and grated carrot, used as a filling for whole wheat bread. Another option is a franco salad with whole grain bread or, if you prefer, a simple sandwich of ham and cheese in the known French bread. The selection of food for the journey depends on each one. Use your common sense and good appetite!
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